Telangana and these 3 South States have High Infertility Rates

When compared to their northern counterparts, do southern states have a greater incidence of infertility? According to a recent study that was published in the PLOS ONE journal, Kerala, tamil Nadu, Karnataka, and telangana have some of the highest rates of infertility among the southern states.
However, given the lack of established infertility practices in public institutions, the gynecologists india Herald talked to advised against depending entirely on samples. However, they do accept a general rise in infertility across the nation, and the following are some potential causes.

What did the Study Find?

According to a recent study on infertility patterns in indian cities conducted by the Department of survey Research and Data Analytics at the international Institute for population Sciences, Mumbai, and the Centre of Social Medicine and Community health at jawaharlal nehru University, New Delhi, the rate of infertility is higher in goa, Kerala, Karnataka, tamil Nadu, telangana, Sikkim, Delhi, and Himachal Pradesh.

These states have poor fertility rates and a high prevalence of infertility (above 20%). It was discovered that states with high rates of both infertility and fertility included Bihar, Uttar Pradesh, Jharkhand, and the northeastern states of Meghalaya, Nagaland, and Manipur. "High infertility levels" signify that a data-sizeable fraction of the population in these states has trouble becoming pregnant or bringing a child to term. Despite the occurrence of infertility, "high fertility levels" imply that these states also have a significant proportion of women giving birth to numerous children.

High levels of infertility and high fertility might be caused by a variety of things, such as disparities in healthcare access, socioeconomic circumstances, cultural norms, and healthcare infrastructure. The National Family health survey (NFHS) was performed in four rounds, starting with NFHS-1 in 1992–1993 and ending with NFHS-4 in 2015–2016. The primary purpose of the four sets of data was to determine the general pattern of infertility over time. The study stressed the close ties between risk factors for infertility, including age at marriage, biological factors, and lifestyle decisions.

Key Findings of the Study

The study produced a number of interesting results that provided insight into the rising rates of infertility in India. Notably, between 1992 and 2015, the rate of primary infertility decreased steadily. A startling 28.6 percent of couples had secondary infertility in 2015–16, up from an alarming 19.5 percent in 1992–93.
Declining birth rates, notably in the states of South india, are directly tied to this trend. Infertility was shown to be substantially correlated with age at marriage, biological variables, and lifestyle decisions. goa was found to have the highest rate of infertility, closely followed by the four southern states. It's interesting to note that these regions also had lower fertility rates, with Goa's Total Fertility Rate (TFR) just being 1.3 in 2019–20.
Factors Affecting Fertility

Urban regions had higher rates of lifestyle variables including drinking alcohol and smoking, which had a big influence on both men's and women's reproductive health. Additionally, obesity, which is frequently associated with PCOS, has become a key risk impacting female infertility. Sedentary lifestyles and unhealthy eating practices, such as the intake of fatty foods, exacerbated this problem.

1. The Role of Age and Marriage

Infertility has been linked in large part to the age of marriage. According to the study, women who were married later in life had a higher chance of developing primary infertility. The age difference between spouses also contributed to infertility, with fertility rates decreasing as the age difference widened. Urban women had greater rates of infertility, perhaps as a result of lifestyle modifications and postponed marriages. Particularly among working women, infertility rates have gone higher, possibly as a result of stressful work environments that might interfere with menstrual cycles.

2. Impact of lifestyle Choices

The study stressed that lifestyle decisions made by women have a substantial influence on their reproductive health. It has been shown that smoking and drinking, which are more common in cities, have a detrimental impact on a woman's capacity to conceive. Obesity has been established as a key contributor to PCOS and infertility, caused by poor diets and sedentary lifestyles.

3. Contraceptives and Other Factors

Infertility has also been connected to the usage of contraceptives, including oral contraceptives and injectables. Secondary infertility was more common in women who had undergone abortions and miscarriages. The study found a strong link between thyroid conditions and female infertility.
Male infertility on the rise

It's interesting to note that infertility has recently become more common among male populations as well. In june 2023, research that was presented at the annual conference of the european Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology (ESHRE) in denmark revealed that even minor infections of COVID-19 cause men to have lower sperm counts for nearly three months thereafter.
The findings, which were based on semen analysis done after 100 days, suggested that COVID-19 did harm the male reproductive system, the researchers said. Men create fresh sperm every two to three months. Dr. swati Shree, an obstetrician, and gynecologist at the Apollo Clinic in Bengaluru, concurs with this. "Research has shown that COVID-19 may lead to alterations in semen parameters, such as decreased sperm concentration, reduced sperm motility, and changes in sperm morphology," the author notes.
She argues that increasing cases of infertility are being caused by male factor infertility in the post-Covid era. "It has been shown that males visiting an IVF clinic with a history of Covid-19 infection are more likely to have aberrant sperm parameters, with lower sperm morphology, motility, and count being the most common. The fact that the majority of these individuals got Covid-19 around six months earlier suggests that it is affecting male fertility. To support this, though, specific research is required, she continues.

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